This is a polysaccharide extracted from the walls of the Saccaromyces cerevisae yeast and belongs to the class of drugs known as Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), on account of the reactions they produce of skin ageing.
Indeed, Betaglucan makes an excellent protective and immuno-stimulant agent.
Betaglucan protects cutaneous cells from the oxidation caused by UV-A radiations. This action also occurs with concentrations as low as 0.01%.
Betaglucan encourages healing and epithelization increases as a result. Betaglucan stimulates the formation of collagen in the dermis, thus enhancing the elasticity and firmness of the skin.
- UV radiations cause suppression in the skin’s immunitary system
- The cells responsible for the immunitary response (keratinocytes and Langerhans cells) become less vital and some cutaneous pathologies may follow as a result.
- In reality, sun filters do not offer complete protection from biological damage caused by sunlight.
- Betaglucan has a remarkable immuno-stimulating effect: i.e. it increases the vitality of the skin’s immunitary cells, thus improving the response of the skin to possible environmental attacks.
Ascorbic acid (Vit. C)
Vitamin C – or ascorbic acid – is a water-soluble compound with a number of biological properties. Therefore, its application in the field of cosmetics – in addition to that of pharmaceutical products – is now greatly increasing.
In particular, it is now being used to great advantage for the following: A marked action against “free radicals”. It is capable of functioning as a “scavenger” in the case of some species of free radicals of oxygen, protecting the biological membrane from degeneration and guard the skin from biological and UV-induced agding.
The activation of collagen synthesis. Actually, it stimulated the synthetic activity of the dermic fibroblasts.
A depigmenting action. It prevents and mitigates the pigment marks typical of an aged skin.
This is a compound of vegetable origin, extracted from soy seeds, which is specifically formulated to replace what constituted in the past a revolutionary raw material in cosmetics: placenta. In spite of its proven efficacy, the placenta is by now an active principle considered dated because of its “defects”: it has animal origin, is liable to bacterial contamination and has an unpleasant smell.
It would be oversimplification to speak of vegetable placenta as a substitute for animal placenta, as the former shows a cellular activity which is about three times as intensive as that of the latter. This product stimulates cell metabolism and supplies the essential elements to ensure its balance.
There is an increased consumption of oxygen by the cutaneous tissue. This tissue responds to a clear sign of cell renewal, which is particularly beneficial in the case of skins showing fatigue, ageing or lack of vitality.
This is a very small type of alga which develops in the sea area off the French islands of Breath.
It contains glycoproteinic substances with a similar effect to that of mucopolysaccharides or glucosaminoaglycons. For this reason, blending well with the proteins in the skin surface, it creates a protective film.
Besides, this alga contains vitamins of the B group, vitamin C and vitamin PP. These vitamins compensate for any possible lack on the cutaneous level which might cause dryness and over-sensitivity. Applied on the skin, Cartageenan extract has, therefore, different functions:
This extract derives from an alga which develops off the archipelago of the Breath islands, in France.
This biomolecule protects the photosynthetic system of algae and their cells from the damage produced by the luminous energy absorbed and from the free radicals produced.
The biochemical analogy between the cells of the alga and those of the skin made it possible to use SPD in cosmetic formulations as an anti-ageing factor.
Actually, this is an excellent agent against free radicals, blocking any kind of chain-reaction causing irreparable damage to the lipids in the biological membranes, in the structural proteins (collagen, elastic) and in DNA. Thus, it exercises an effective action in the prevention of ageing.
These are oil-soluble components normally found in the horny layer in an amout of 14%. The vegetable ceramides used in cosmetics are phospholipids. They blend chemically to their compatible molecules in the horny lager: this actually produces the intercellular cement which supports the horny cells.
This also brings about better cohesion in the horny lager, which allows the epidermis to maintain the moisture ratio steady as there is less water loss in the deeper layers.
There is a beneficial increase in the water patrimony in the skin which affords greater protection to the horny layer.
- Vegetable ceramides blend with the ceramides in the horny layer.
- The intercellular cement in the horny cells becomes more solid.
- The horny layer are better sustained and intercellular space is reduced.
- There is a considerable reduction in “perspiration insensibilis”, i.e. the transepidermic loss of water in the deeper skin layers.
From the chemical point of view, this is an alcohol which receives the name of tocopherol.
Different studies carried out with marked molecules led to the discovery that Vitamin E penetrates whole into the skin and deposits on the dermis: it is claimed that this vitamin is efficacious in maintaining the connective tissue in optimal conditions.
However, its chief function is that of reducing the formation of peroxides from fat acids which free radicals from in the biological membranes. Vitamin E proves to be highly effective in the prevention of free radicals and, as a consequence, an excellent anti-ageing agent.
This vitamin is found in nature as retinol, the alcoholic form of vitamin A. In cosmetics, however, it is used in the form of a retinol ester, retinol palmitate, a more stable compound in comparison to retinol.
Vitamin A has a beneficial effect on growth and development of the skin and of the mucosa because:
The above are glycolic extracts from plants with proven toning, stimulation, refirming, elasticizing properties.
- it stimulates cell division in the germinative layer of the epidermis.
- It regulates the process of keratinization.
- Guarna extracts, Ginseng, Cola, Cone flower, Hops and Horstail.