The Problem
The degeneration in the tissue which naturally takes place as we become older, makes the skin less elastic, less compact and also improperly nourishment. More precisely, the skin becomes thinner, the adhesion between the cells in the horny layer deteriorates and scaling occurs, while the area separating the epidermis and the dermis becomes flatter.

At the same time, the elastic fibres in the dermis come loose, there is an increase in insoluble collagen � less elastic and moisturized in comparison to native collagen � and there is an alteration in the rate of mucopolysaccharides of the basic substance, namely, the glucosaminoaglycons. In turn, blood vessels undergo modifications as well: they become more scarce in number and their walls become stiffer.

There is also a reduction in the subcutaneous reserve of fat. Summing up, modifications occur, both on the dermic and epidermic level.

In the epidermis:
The horny layer develops layers, becoming thicker and dehydrated. The epidermis becomes thinner reproduction of germinative cells in the basal layer slows down, making the �turn-over� process longer and longer the dermic papillae � i.e. the area separating the epidermis and the dermis becomes flatter, which means that germinative activity of the basal cells slows down.
The result of these modifications slows down the production of new epidermic cells, which will become keratinocytes and then coenocytes.

In the dermis:
The fibroblasts produce poor quality fiber, There is a decrease in the production of soluble collagen � highly hydrophilic � while the production of insoluble collagen increase.
There is a decrease in the production of unsulfurated glucosaminoglycons, which are not as capable as sodium hyaluronate of binding water. The elastin fibers produced prove to be less elastic. There is a reduction in the number of blood vessels and their walls become stiffer, which results in the dermic cells receiving less nourishment and in poor drain of the toxins deriving from cell metabolism.

The result of these modifications is that the connective tissue becomes insufficiently elastic, with poor support and with insufficient water-binding properties: the skin loses its firmness and freshness which and typical of young age.

In the hypodermis:
There is a reduction in the storage of subcutaneous fat.

How does the skin look and feel?
As ageing occurs � whether physiological or precocious � the following signs appear in the skin of face and neck:
dehydration and alipia (alterations in the epicutaneous in the lipidic layer for lack of water and sebum) scaling wrinkles.

According to American dermatologist Kligman, who conferred scientific prestige to the study of wrinkles and to anti-ageing therapies, wrinkles may be classified into the following types:
Linear wrinkles: this is the typical wrinkle which is caused by a contraction of the mimic muscles around the eyes on the forehead, between the eyes and surrounding the mouth.
Gliphic wrinkles: which are due to exaggerated cutaneous folding and are particularly noticeable in the face of elderly people.
Creases: which are the so-called �sleep folds�, found particularly in the skin of forehead and cheeks.
Crinkles: which usually show most in the skin of arms, thighs and hips. These are due to the gradual physiological deterioration of the dermis, particularly in the elastic subepidermic reticule.
Nasal-labial folds: these are situated between the nose-lobes and the outer edges of the lips and are caused by an excess of skin which gives way as a result of gravitational factors.

  • bags under the eyes
  • double chin
  • �venus rings� around the neck
  • pigment marks
  • increase in capillary permeability resulting in fragility
  • grayish color
  • thin epidermis, but unduly thick on the surface
There are a number of factors which contribute to skin ageing, and these are particularly of an internal nature:
  • familial predisposition (inherited genetic patrimony)
  • fast slimming
  • stress
  • inadequate intake of trace elements, vitamins and antioxidant factors in food
  • use of medicines
  • degenerative pathologies affecting the tissues
But others are of an external nature:
  • over-exposure to sun rays
  • use of aggressive cleansing products and unsuitable cosmetics
  • excessive smoking and use of drugs
Theory of �free radicals�
Modern scientific research accounts for the damage produced by ageing on the basis of a biochemical theory: according to this theory, the so-called �free radicals� are responsible for the degeneration which occurs in the connective tissue � dermis � which leads to the formation of wrinkles. �Free radicals� are highly reactive molecules which our organism is confronted with every day.

Some free radicals are necessary to out metabolic reactions, while others are extremely harmful.

The most dangerous free radicals are those of oxygen which may � if not kept under control � bring about serious alterations in the oxidization of collagen, of elastic and even of the DNA and RNA genetic material and also peroxidize the phospholipids which make the biological membranes. That it to say, in contact with biological structures, they respond by deteriorating them and by causing serious damage in the cells and in the tissues as a whole.

The free radicals of oxygen are claimed to cause all those phenomena related to ageing: from those affecting the brain and the heart to those affecting the arteries and the skin.

Some factors, such as electromagnetic radiations, smoking, the use of medicines, an improper diet and stress lead to the formation of free radicals and to their increase in the cells.

Beside, all defense mechanisms for the neutralization of free radicals lose efficacy as the years advance and, if they become completely insufficient, the skin�s biological structures are gradually damaged until the whole organism � including the skin � undergoes a process of ageing.

The Solution
The LIFTPELLE Line and the LIFTPELLE PROGRAMME are the result of in-depth careful research into the delicate interactive process taking place between the skin and the cosmetics applied onto it and into the criteria belonging to advanced cosmetology.

According to the findings of this updated research, in order to encourage a natural process of prolonged youth, a beauty treatment must act in three different directions:

  • it must prevent such alterations as dehydration and dryness which may predispose the skin to precocious ageing;
  • it must also protect the skin against the / from the damage caused by external factors; i.e. sunlight, pollution, cold, etc, by applying both biochemical and mechanical techniques.
  • it must also compensate for the lack of biological substances inevitably caused by ageing, which brings about a great deal of functional imbalance and aesthetic unpleasant effects.

    In order to ensure maximum efficacy for the benefit of the skin and its indispensable functions, the Liftpelle Line and Liftpelle Programme make use of some active principles which set a trend in the prevention of skin ageing.

  • Cosmetic Features
    This is a polysaccharide extracted from the walls of the Saccaromyces cerevisae yeast and belongs to the class of drugs known as Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), on account of the reactions they produce of skin ageing.

    Indeed, Betaglucan makes an excellent protective and immuno-stimulant agent.

    Betaglucan protects cutaneous cells from the oxidation caused by UV-A radiations. This action also occurs with concentrations as low as 0.01%.

    • UV radiations cause suppression in the skin�s immunitary system
    • The cells responsible for the immunitary response (keratinocytes and Langerhans cells) become less vital and some cutaneous pathologies may follow as a result.
    • In reality, sun filters do not offer complete protection from biological damage caused by sunlight.
    • Betaglucan has a remarkable immuno-stimulating effect: i.e. it increases the vitality of the skin�s immunitary cells, thus improving the response of the skin to possible environmental attacks.
    Betaglucan encourages healing and epithelization increases as a result. Betaglucan stimulates the formation of collagen in the dermis, thus enhancing the elasticity and firmness of the skin.

    Ascorbic acid (Vit. C)
    Vitamin C � or ascorbic acid � is a water-soluble compound with a number of biological properties. Therefore, its application in the field of cosmetics � in addition to that of pharmaceutical products � is now greatly increasing.

    In particular, it is now being used to great advantage for the following: A marked action against �free radicals�. It is capable of functioning as a �scavenger� in the case of some species of free radicals of oxygen, protecting the biological membrane from degeneration and guard the skin from biological and UV-induced agding.

    The activation of collagen synthesis. Actually, it stimulated the synthetic activity of the dermic fibroblasts.

    A depigmenting action. It prevents and mitigates the pigment marks typical of an aged skin.

    Vegetable Placenta
    This is a compound of vegetable origin, extracted from soy seeds, which is specifically formulated to replace what constituted in the past a revolutionary raw material in cosmetics: placenta. In spite of its proven efficacy, the placenta is by now an active principle considered dated because of its �defects�: it has animal origin, is liable to bacterial contamination and has an unpleasant smell.

    It would be oversimplification to speak of vegetable placenta as a substitute for animal placenta, as the former shows a cellular activity which is about three times as intensive as that of the latter. This product stimulates cell metabolism and supplies the essential elements to ensure its balance.

    There is an increased consumption of oxygen by the cutaneous tissue. This tissue responds to a clear sign of cell renewal, which is particularly beneficial in the case of skins showing fatigue, ageing or lack of vitality.

    Carrageenan Extract
    This is a very small type of alga which develops in the sea area off the French islands of Breath.

    It contains glycoproteinic substances with a similar effect to that of mucopolysaccharides or glucosaminoaglycons. For this reason, blending well with the proteins in the skin surface, it creates a protective film.

    Besides, this alga contains vitamins of the B group, vitamin C and vitamin PP. These vitamins compensate for any possible lack on the cutaneous level which might cause dryness and over-sensitivity. Applied on the skin, Cartageenan extract has, therefore, different functions:

    • Moisturizing
    • Protective
    • Restitutive
    Superphyco-d (SPD)
    This extract derives from an alga which develops off the archipelago of the Breath islands, in France.

    This biomolecule protects the photosynthetic system of algae and their cells from the damage produced by the luminous energy absorbed and from the free radicals produced.

    The biochemical analogy between the cells of the alga and those of the skin made it possible to use SPD in cosmetic formulations as an anti-ageing factor.

    Actually, this is an excellent agent against free radicals, blocking any kind of chain-reaction causing irreparable damage to the lipids in the biological membranes, in the structural proteins (collagen, elastic) and in DNA. Thus, it exercises an effective action in the prevention of ageing.

    Vegetable ceramides
    These are oil-soluble components normally found in the horny layer in an amout of 14%. The vegetable ceramides used in cosmetics are phospholipids. They blend chemically to their compatible molecules in the horny lager: this actually produces the intercellular cement which supports the horny cells.

    This also brings about better cohesion in the horny lager, which allows the epidermis to maintain the moisture ratio steady as there is less water loss in the deeper layers.

    Summing up:

    • Vegetable ceramides blend with the ceramides in the horny layer.
    • The intercellular cement in the horny cells becomes more solid.
    • The horny layer are better sustained and intercellular space is reduced.
    • There is a considerable reduction in �perspiration insensibilis�, i.e. the transepidermic loss of water in the deeper skin layers.
    There is a beneficial increase in the water patrimony in the skin which affords greater protection to the horny layer.

    Vitamin E
    From the chemical point of view, this is an alcohol which receives the name of tocopherol.

    Different studies carried out with marked molecules led to the discovery that Vitamin E penetrates whole into the skin and deposits on the dermis: it is claimed that this vitamin is efficacious in maintaining the connective tissue in optimal conditions.

    However, its chief function is that of reducing the formation of peroxides from fat acids which free radicals from in the biological membranes. Vitamin E proves to be highly effective in the prevention of free radicals and, as a consequence, an excellent anti-ageing agent.

    Vitamin A
    This vitamin is found in nature as retinol, the alcoholic form of vitamin A. In cosmetics, however, it is used in the form of a retinol ester, retinol palmitate, a more stable compound in comparison to retinol.

    Vitamin A has a beneficial effect on growth and development of the skin and of the mucosa because:

    • it stimulates cell division in the germinative layer of the epidermis.
    • It regulates the process of keratinization.
    • Guarna extracts, Ginseng, Cola, Cone flower, Hops and Horstail.
    The above are glycolic extracts from plants with proven toning, stimulation, refirming, elasticizing properties.

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