The Problem
The imperfections which spoil the appearance of the skin surface bring about a number of aesthetic disorders. These are more frequent in adulthood but may also be found in younger subjects, though in different forms. On account of the complexity of the disorders it causes, skin ageing is undoubtedly a very particular aesthetic problem. Functional insufficiency and the degeneration of the elastic tissue cause the skin to become less elastic, less compact and more poorly nourished as it grows older. More precisely, the epidermis becomes thinner, there is less cell-adhesion in the horny layer and scaling increases as a result while the boundary line between the dermis and epidermis (dermic papilla) becomes flatter. At the same time, the elastic fibres in the derma become looser and there is an increase in the supply of insolluble collagen, which is less elastic and less moisturized in comparison to the soluble type. Also, glucosamineglycans -the mucopolysaccharide content of the substance - undergo alterations. Blood vessels, in turn, change as well: there are fewer of them, and their walls become stiffer and there is a reduction in the storage of subcutaneous fat. The result of all these hidden processes which can be seen on the surface is the wrinkling, that is, the appearance of more or less deep wrinkles, together with pigmental stains and an anomalous development of hairs caused by hormonal changes. However, skin stains are not only found in an aged skin. An irregular built-up of melanin in the epidermic layers due to an unsteady synthetic action by the melanocytes at the base of the epidermis may also be connected with other physiological conditions. For instance, consider the occurrence of chloasma, which is typical in pregnant women and in those who take oral contraceptives. Besides, other stains on the skin are caused by the cicatricial marks resulting from acne. The most common factor which causes the appearance of hyperpigmentation in all the above conditions is always sun exposure, as this stimulates the melanosynthetic action of melanocytes. Sunlight is the most significant environmental factor which may cause precocious skin ageing. "Photoageing" , which literally means "ageing caused by light", is the degenerative process which affects the skin, even a young skin, which has undergone overexposure to sunlight without any protection. The face looks yellowish, shows slight wrinkles, dilated surface vessels, loss of elasticity, dark stains, hyperkeratosis, and it becomes excessively rough and dry.

In addition, epidermis cell exchange slows down considerably and elastosis occurs (irreversible destruction of the elastic tissue in the dermis).

Also acne produces a number of surface imperfections which spoil the pleasant appearance of the skin.

Indeed, the sebaceous sebum produced by hypertrophic glands and increased keratinization of the epidermis cause fatty and keratinous material to build up in the pilo-sebaceous follicles, thus causing the inflamation of the follicle and of the surrounding tissue.

As a result, a variety of lesions appear: comedoes, papulae, pustules, nodules, cysts and, above all, small cicatricial marks at an advanced stage.

The Solution
PENTA line offers an aesthetic treatment based on the most innovative functional principles to fight all those imperfections which spoil the appearance of the skin

Cosmetic Features
  • CYCLODEXTRINS are vehicles which may carry active principles of different types by "englobing" them. Once in contact with the epidermis, cyclodextrins release the active molecules with a retard effect and so on a constant basis and with a gradual long-lasting action on the skin.
  • GLYCOLIC ACID and ALPHAHYDROXYACIDS carried by the cyclodextrins are carried with a "retarding" effect, thus producing a properly gauged and progressive exfoliation without causing the undesired irritating phenomena which characterizes traditional glycolic acid. In this way, there is a more constant and effective stimulus for cell renewal.
  • ALKALINE PHOSPHATE ENZYMES and PROTEASE CARRIED BY CYCLODEXTRINS exercise a steady progressive keratolytic action in synergy with glycolic acid. This makes it possible to obtain an excellent result and also to maintain the concentration of glycolic acid, AHA and to keep the corresponding pH within a safe range.
  • With their significant functional action, RETYNIL PALMITATE and ASCORBIC ACID contribute to a more comprehensive process of skin regeneration. In effect, by stimulating the germinative activity in the basic skin layer, Retynil Palmitate makes for a more compact texture of the skin. Ascorbic acid plays a key role in the collagen synthesis performed by the skin fibroblasts, thus increasing skin moisture and tone.
  • CORALLINA OFFICINALIS EXTRACT, which naturally abounds in trace elements stimulates the biosynthetic activity which occur in the dermis. It also fights all those functional disorders which lie at the base of skin ageing.
  • KOJIC ACID in conjunction with GLYCOLIC ACID gradually reduce pigment stains by degrading the build-up of melanin.
  • PANTHENOL, GLYCOLIC MALLOW and MARIGOLD EXTRACT and SOLUBLE COLLAGEN make a highly moisturizing and lenitive compound, which is indispensable to supplement any exfoliating treatment.

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